Structures – Plants buildings heritage
Static and Dynamic load tests
P&P performs static and dynamic load test on a wide range of structures in the civil, industrial and infrastructure field.
The test can both be carried out at the end or during the process of construction of the opera, to verify the assumptions made in the design phase and to control the correct execution of the structure.
As well, during the final inspection, tests can be used to determine the effective behavior of the structure and confirm the structural arrangement assumed in the design phase.
In this way it can be ensured, beyond any typical uncertainty of the design or construction phase, that the works meet the safety and static requirements.
At least, tests can be also carried out during the operating phase of any structure, when necessary for requalification works, or simply for the programmed maintenance during the lifetime cycle of the opera, to identify any presence of degradation or damaged parts.
Dynamic tests are carried out to define the global behavior of the structure, as they turn out to be a fundamental tool during seismic assessment. P&P can provide special equipment (mechanical vibrodyne, hydraulic vibrodyne, electrodynamic exciters, …) as load sources, tools for the measurement of the structural response and data analysis.
Static and dynamic load tests on wall glazed system
Vibration and Noise survey
P&P performs measurement of vibration and acoustic noise induced on building or sensitive items.
Surveys can be also carried out to check the intensity of the vibration produced by installation and machineries and further design of insulation measures.
P & P designs, manufactures and installs systems for static and dynamic supervision with specific automatic management software.
Other optional services offered are the transmission of data via GSM, remote control, alarm threshold management, interpretive analysis of data provided by the monitoring system.
The monitoring systems are used for example to measure continuously the vibration levels caused by construction site activities to nearby buildings with vibrational noise assessment on structures and people; or also to control the evolution of cracks and beddings through the use of strain gauges, inclinometers and livellometri. An optional tool is also the real-time control and automatic signaling the exceeding the alarm levels.
P&P can also provide seismic monitoring systems with remote control and contextual survey of the parameters linked to the stability of the structure.
P & P manages the monitoring of landslide bodies and slope instability.
Nondestructive tests and structural surveys
There is a wide range of tools and techniques relevant for assessing the actual behavior and integrity of a work, and for control of the state of conservation of materials. P & P uses multiple testing methods applicable to structures under construction or operative buildings.
The diagnostic intervention program define the type and number of control techniques required according to the following main aspects:
• Structural typology: concrete, masonry, steel
• information goals: geometry, size, nature of the materials, components integrity, etc …
• accessibility on the area
• execution speed and duration of outside service period
• survey cost
The experience and specific expertise in civil, industrial construction, transport infrastructure, the monumental buildings and industrial plants, enable P&P to offer its customers the optimal solution
Pull out tests
Pull off tests
Single and double flat jars
Shear tests on masonry
Core drilling on concrete
Video inspections and endoscopies
Armature bars surveys with probes and with pacometer
Relief of the pull in the chains
Deformation and tension measurements
Load tests on plate and ground bearing capacity
Load tests on piles and foundation works
Geometric, structural and topographic surveys
Ultrasonic Reliefs of thicknesses of metallic materials
Control of welds by magnetic particles
Checking of ultrasonic welding
Tightening bolts with torque wrench
Tests on masonry and wall panels
|Measurement of corrosion potential
Moisture measurement on wood and masonry
Penetrometric tests on wood
Tests with Resistograph on wood
Tests with Wood Pacher on wood
Extraction tests on masonry
Cross hole tests on poles and diaphragms
Non-destructive testing on piles and pit-based works / electrodynamic exciter
Extraction tests on anchoring systems and tie rods
Sealing tests for sewer pipes
Absorption tests on masonry and wall panels
Tests on industrial floors
Tests on mortars, plasters and stone materials
Survey of the state of solicitation on elements in c.a.
Skid Test friction tests
Measurement of coatings and coating thicknesses
Controlled structural uploading
P&P manufactures uploading systems controlled with automatic monitoring for stationary or for impromptu construction activities.
They can be simultaneously applied loads at different points by monitoring displacements and stresses through centralized control systems with wide adjustment.
Thermography rapresent an effective diagnostic technology that can be applied in different fields, including construction and industry.
Through the use of thermal imaging cameras it is possible to analyze the emission infrared rays, which all bodies emit, otherwise invisible to the human eye. In this way, performing non-destructive and non-invasive tests, it is possible to obtain a 2D graphical display of the measurement radiation.
The termography, measuring the amount of radiation emitted by a body (which increases proportionally to the fourth power of the object’s absolute temperature), can measure its temperature, regardless of their illumination in the visible field. This measurements, in the form of 2D images, give the technician an useful tool to detect anomalies invisible to the human eye.
All thermographic surveys are carried out by second level technician according to EN ISO 9712 A 473
P&P performs infrared thermography services:
Wooden structures analysis
P&P performs technical analysis on wooden structures to provide guidelines for a qualitative assessment of wood samples, and also proceed to the recognition of woody species by anatomical characterization of cellular elements, as reported in Norma UNI 11119 2004.
The main investigation performer are:
Visual ispection of the wooden structure with degradation mapping: macroscopic analysis of the wood species based on the recognition of anatomical elements on a visual inspection
Penetration test with Resistograph: instrumental analysis carried out to investigate structural parts not visible or accessible, for example the internal parts of the sections or the supports on the walls. The Resistograph is, in essence, a drill able to record the resistance that the wood opposes the penetration of a standard tip, which rotate and move with constant speed.
Wood Pecker test: the Woodpecker is a penetrometer equipped with an hammer and a needle. The needle is driven into the wood tissue with a predetermined number of strokes and its sinking depth can be correlated to the mechanical characteristics, nature and degradation state of the wooden material. The test method is therefore particularly suitable for the mechanical assessment on site of the wooden tissue.
Humidity test on wood: a digital hygrometer can be used for the measurement of the internal moisture content of wooden elements. This instrument is a digital moisture meter able to measure the amount of water within the inspected element, with an automatic correction according to the operating temperature.
Sonic test of wooden elements: the test gives background information about the homogeneity of characteristics between different examined elements.
Laboratory tests on wood samples: execution of bending tests. The test lay-out consists in placing the samples on hinged supports and applying a concentrated load in the middle to the sample through an hydraulic jack. An electrical transducer is used for the measurement of the vertical displacement at the middle of each beam under test.
Laboratory analysis of wood samples: the samples observed at macroscopic and microscopic level. The recognition of woody species is achieved through the anatomic characterization of cellular elements, as reported in the UNI 11118 2004. Once in the laboratory, the samples are moistened and cut for microscopic analysis of the wood in transverse, radial and tangential direction.
P&P performs different tests on foundations, with particular reference to piles and diaphragms. Specifically performing:
Static tests on piles with high capacity load
static load tests are carried out measuring the displacements of the pile or micro-pile, with the pourpose of testing the artifact, even for pile with high load capacity.
Extraction tests on micropile
Extraction tests for the final test on micropiles dimensioned for tensile loads
Non-destructive testing with ecometric method (mechanical admittance measured with a top pulse)
Measurement of the pile or micropile length and integrity through the analysis of the response to a sonic impulse given at the top of the pile
Dynamic tests with excitement on the vertical axis at high or low energy (mechanical admittance measured with a vertical exciter)
Verification of the pile or micropile length and integrity through the analysis of the response to a vibratory load impressed at the top of the pile through an electrodynamic exciter operating in the vertical axis with a frequency range from 50 to 1000 Hz. Unlike echometric tests, dynamic test give the opportunity to assess the pile behavior through some indications concerning the pile-soil interaction.
Dynamic tests using a vibrodyne with counter-rotating shafts at high energy
Verification of the pile or micropile length and integrity through the analysis of the response to a vibratory load impressed at the top of the pile through an electrodynamic exciter with counter-rotating shafts operating in the frequency range between 1 and 50 Hz. Unlike echometric tests , dynamic test with vibrodyne give the opportunity to assess the pile behavior through some indications concerning the pile-soil interaction, the degree of constraint between the pile and the building and the bearing capacity through the use of appropriate correlation formulas.
Cross-hole sonic test
Verification of the pile or micropile length and integrity through the analysis of the response to a sonic impulse impressed by probes driven in the soil through specially crafted pipes placed before the pile cast. The test also returns, in graphic form, the behavior and the geometric characteristics of each section along the pile.
High-elevation works through ropes
- P&P has a great experience concerning the execution of high-elevation works with acccess and positioning using ropes. We make diagnostic survey operations, install monitoring systems, ensure the safety and the cleaning of external walls of buildings and monuments at high elevation.
We mainly work on:
- – Metal framing structures, cableways pilons, antennas, latticeworks
– Quarries and mining activities
- P&P has the qualified technical staff for transitory works at high elevations with access and positioning using ropes both in artificial and natural habitat as stated in the TESTO UNICO SULLA SALUTE E SICUREZZA SUL LAVORO n.81 of April 9,2008/ Attachment nr XXI.